Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Situation

With an estimated population just over 10 million people, Bolivia ranks 108 in the Human Development Index . Despite a low unemployment rate (3.4%), poverty rates remain high: 51.3% of the population is living under the national poverty line, including 66.4% of the rural population, and 43.3% of the urban population . Social expenditures in favour of children increased from 7.8% to 8% of the GDP between 2008 and 2010, or from US$ 1.2 to 1.5 million. In December 2013, the Government of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (GoB) released final results from its 2012 Population and Housing Census, which showed a decrease in the population under-19 years, from 49% in 2001 to 42% in 2012.

Bolivia is on-track to achieving many of its Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Targets. To date, the ones pertaining to extreme poverty, malnutrition, literacy, gender equality, institutional delivery coverage, protected areas, and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons have already been reached. Despite this progress, important objectives related to water, sanitation and hygiene will not be reached by 2015, due to disparities and inequities due to geographical determinants as well as others.

The 2012 Census results show that 66% of households have access to piped water networks (compared to 62% in 2001). Estimates for 2011 by Economic and Social Policy Analysis Unit (UDAPE) and UNICEF, as part of the Joint Monitoring Programme initiative, show that 87% of the population use an improved water source (95% urban, 71% rural), while 63% of the population use an improved sanitation system (78% urban, 32% rural).

Additionally, according to the 2012 census, 3.5 million people live in rural communities with less than 2,000 inhabitants; it is estimated that there exist approximately 28,000 communities with less than 500 inhabitants. The Bolivian Unit for the Analysis of Social and Economic Policy (UDAPE) calculated that only 32% of rural population use improved sanitation facilities and 54% of the rural population practices open defecation . This directly affects the health of the most vulnerable population, indigenous and peasant children.

In recent years, the Bolivian Government has made significant efforts to increase access to sanitation, but the national sanitation programmes and policies are missing their effect in rural areas and the most vulnerable and poorest families. Investments and interventions of recent years have widened the gap in sanitation coverage in urban and rural areas from 32 percentage points in 1992 to 46 percentage points in 2012.

In the country, as in the rest of the world, various strategies have been developed to improve the quality of life of children and adolescents, but the existence of internal gaps reflects that they are insufficient and require actions that have higher impact and are coupled with scientific evidence and new operational actions with successful implementation history elsewhere.

In order to adequately and effectively steer policies directed at improving WASH outcomes of Bolivian children, the Government of Bolivia, through the technical assistance and institutional building offered by UNICEF, needs the continued support and cooperation of international networks made up of the international donor community and the United Nations.

UNICEF in action

To improve equitable use of safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in Bolivia, UNICEF Bolivia focuses on key actions:

  • Promoting social mobilization, participation and behavior change towards healthy practices ( hand- washing with soap, safe feces disposal, water management at consumption point, and menstrual hygiene management) with a intra/intercultural approach involving families and communities
  • Technical assistance at national and subnational levels for providing WASH services, including strategic planning with the implementation of WASH Bottleneck analysis
  • Technical assistance at municipal level for ensuring WASH services sustainability by local service delivery entities
  • Increasing the government of Bolivia’s capacity and delivery of services to ensure girls, boys and women have protected and reliable access to sufficient safe water, sanitation and hygiene facilities in humanitarian situations
  • Strengthening the developing, dissemination and implementation of national policies and norms for ensuring universal, equitable and sustainable access to WASH services
  • Strengthening the national monitoring system at national and subnational levels towards universal access to water and sanitation
  • Contribute to a depth analysis with an equity approach on access to WASH services;

With human rights, gender- mainstreaming and equity as overarching approaches, the programme will use a mix of the above-mentioned key actions.

Additionally, UNICEF will use innovative strategies and models such as situation analyses for equity (using UNICEF’s Monitoring Results for Equity System), investment case approach (using WASH Bottleneck Analysis) to better identify implementation constraints that should be removed in order to optimize expected outcomes.

Impact

Outcome: Improved and equitable use of safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in Bolivia.

Output 3.1: Communities apply hygiene practices and are active in WASH services management at community rural level.

Output 3.2: National and subnational governments provide WASH services in communities and schools from rural areas

Output 3.3: National and subnational governments elaborate and implement policies, norms and programs for WASH services provision, with equity and intercultural approach.

Output 3.4: Increased the government of Bolivia’s capacity and delivery of services to ensure girls, boys and women have protected and reliable access to sufficient safe water, sanitation and hygiene facilities in humanitarian situations.

Strategic Approach

In line with its Strategic Plan 2014-2017, UNICEF seeks to strengthen a combination of strategies in order to better achieve results for children: providing equitable delivery of interventions; increasing access to lifesaving and preventive interventions, including in humanitarian action; improving caregiver knowledge of high-impact interventions; improving the quality and use of data for making decisions; ensuring better integration of WASH services with other services and interventions being provided to mothers, newborns and children; promoting policy dialogue and advocacy and communication for development; harboring innovative approaches; and strengthening partnerships at all levels.

Within the 2013-2017 Country Programme, and aiming at the achievement of the above-mentioned results, the strategic approaches to the WASH work of UNICEF within Bolivia include: focusing on capacity development to increase sustainable access to safe drinking water; eliminating open defecation and improving access to adequate sanitation; increasing hand-washing and good hygiene practices; providing safe drinking water, sanitation and hand-washing facilities in schools and health centres (with attention to the needs of girls); and increasing preparedness to respond to humanitarian situations.

The intervention strategy is based on equity principles including a social commitment to the vulnerable population living in rural areas. The strategy seeks to sustainably scale-up the implementation of community and participatory approaches for access to improved WASH services.

Partnerships

Being able to partner effectively and efficiently to enhance results for children, based on the UNICEF comparative advantage and shared commitments to common principles and results, has never been more important. Strategic partnerships will continue to play a central role in advancing results for children with equity and UNICEF will continue its long-standing practice of building capacity through partnerships with national and local governments, civil society, academic institutions and the private sector, reducing the dependence of governments and other actors on development assistance over time.

The main partners supporting the WASH Component of the YCSD Programme are:

  • Ministry of Environment and Water
  • Rural and indigenous community organizations
  • Municipal governments, bilateral and multilateral cooperation agencies
  • Global programme partnerships, such as Sanitation and Water for All, will also continue to be a cornerstone of UNICEF programmatic engagement, advocacy and leveraging of funds.

Budget estimate

Strategic Lines of Action 2016 2017 Total
Promoting social mobilization, participation and behavior change towards healthy practices ( hand- washing with soap, safe feces disposal, water management at consumption point, and menstrual hygiene management) with a intra/intercultural approach involving families and communities 79,542 0 79,542
Technical assistance at national and subnational levels for providing WASH services, including strategic planning with the implementation of WASH Bottleneck analysis 241,619 0 241,619
Technical assistance at municipal level for ensuring WASH services sustainability by local service delivery entities 946,883 0 946,883
Increasing the government of Bolivia’s capacity and delivery of services to ensure girls, boys and women have protected and reliable access to sufficient safe water, sanitation and hygiene facilities in humanitarian situations 60,000 0 60,000
Promoting and supporting the participation and empowerment of rural and indigenous-based organizations with a special focus on women and adolescent girls 60,000 0 60,000
Strengthening the developing, dissemination and implementation of national policies and norms for ensuring universal, equitable and sustainable access to WASH services 3,000 0 3,000
Producing evidence for improving HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care, for effective plan, budget, implement, monitor and evaluate 0friendly, intercultural and gender-sensitive policies and programs for children and mothers at subnational levels 43,750 0 43,750
Strengthening the national monitoring system at national and subnational levels towards universal access to water and sanitation 40,000 0 40,000
Contribute to a depth analysis with an equity approach on access to WASH services 15,000 0 15,000
Total Required Budget $3,480,000 $1,740,000 $5,220,000
Total Available $1,386,044 $0 $1,386,044
Funding Gap $2,093,956 $0 $3,833,956